Category Archives: Geriatric Medicine

“Turning the Tide” on HIV/AIDS

In advance of the upcoming XIX International AIDS Conference, the International AIDS Society and the University of California, San Francisco, have issued the “Washington D.C. Declaration,” a nine-point action plan aimed at broadening global support for “Turning the Tide” of the AIDS epidemic.

Everyone is urged to sign the Declaration.

It calls for:

1) An increase in targeted new investments;
2) Evidence-based HIV prevention, treatment, and care in accord with the human rights of those at greatest risk and in greatest need;
3) An end to stigma, discrimination, legal sanctions, and human rights abuses against those living with and at risk for HIV;
4) Marked increases in HIV testing, counseling, and linkages to services;
5) Treatment for all pregnant and nursing women living with HIV and an end to perinatal transmission;
6) Expanded access to antiretroviral treatment for all in need;
7) Identification, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis;
8) Accelerated research on new tools for HIV prevention, treatment, vaccines, and a cure;
9) Mobilization and meaningful involvement of affected communities.

Turning the Tide is the theme of this year’s biennial conference, which will take place July 22-27 in Washington.  It is expected to draw 25,000 attendees, including HIV professionals, activists, politicians, and celebrities. Sir Elton John will open the conference and Bill Clinton will close it. A large delegation of U.S. members of Congress will participate, and Bill Gates will moderate a session. An enormous “Global Village” outside the D.C. Convention Center will be open to the public. “If you haven’t been, it’s a conference like no other,” conference cochair Dr. Diane V. Havlir said at a press briefing.

The recent optimism regarding HIV/AIDS stems from major advances in knowledge regarding prevention of partner transmission with early patient treatment, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and male circumcision as HIV infection prevention (new data will be released at the meeting), all of which are viewed as breakthroughs  in the fight against HIV/AIDS. “So we have now in our hands the tools. The question is how do we combine those tools together, and how do we roll them out,” said Dr. Havlir, professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and chief of the HIV/AIDS division at San Francisco General Hospital.

Dr. Diane V. Havlir / Photo by Miriam E. Tucker

Monday’s plenary session will include an address from Dr. Anthony Fauci, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, on “Ending the HIV Epidemic: From Scientific Advances to Public Health Implementation.” Other plenary topics during the week will include viral eradication, vaccines, TB and HIV, and HIV/AIDS in specific populations including minorities, women, youth, and men who have sex with men. On Friday, there will be a plenary talk that may be of particular interest to the primary care community, “The Intersection of Noncommunicable Diseases and Aging in HIV.”

Plenaries and other conference sessions will be webcast at http://globalhealth.kff.org/aids2012.

-Miriam E. Tucker (@MiriamETucker on Twitter)

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VA Adopts Innovative Project Nationwide

An innovative medical project that we reported in April has made the big time — a nationwide pilot program in the immense Department of Veterans Affairs system, the nation’s largest integrated health care system.

Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) has been working wonders in New Mexico, Washington State, and a few other locations to bring specialty care to thousands of people who previously had little access to this care. Created by Dr. Sanjeev Arora of the University of New Mexico, Project ECHO connects primary care physicians with specialists in weekly case-management and educational teleconferences to give primary care physicians the support they need to manage complex patients with hepatitis C, asthma, chronic pain, rheumatic or cardiac disease, HIV, substance abuse, mental illness, high-risk pregnancy, childhood obesity, and more.

Dr. Arora (center, back turned) leads a Project ECHO videoconference. (Courtesy Project ECHO)

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services awarded Project ECHO an $8.5 million Health Care Innovation grant in May 2012 to expand its operations in two states.

Impressed, the Department of Veterans Affairs cloned Project ECHO and tomorrow will launch a nationwide pilot program in the VA system that could help veterans get care in the local communities instead of traveling to specialists for treatment of heart failure, chronic pain, hepatitis C, etc. In our April 2012 video interview with Dr. Rollin M. Gallagher, deputy national program director for pain management in the Veterans Health Administration, he explains why Project ECHO is so appealing to the VA

The VA’s version, called Specialty Care Access Network-ECHO (or SCAN-ECHO), will kick off officially with a briefing by a panel of experts in Washington, D.C., that also can be viewed by Webcast (how appropriate) on Wednesday, July 11, 2012 from 10 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. Eastern time. Register here to view the Webcast.

The panel will feature Dr. Arora with Dr. Robert A. Pretzel, under-secretary for health in the V.A. system, Dr. John R. Lumpkin, director of the Health Care Group for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which has funded much of Project ECHO’s work, and both specialty and primary care providers from the Cleveland VA Medical Center.

With any luck, the success of Project ECHO will echo across the country as this model of care expands.

–Sherry Boschert (@sherryboschert on Twitter)

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Recycle to Reduce Drug Overdoses

Recycling and prescription drug overdoses have something in common.

Recycling has become second nature in many parts of America. Bins and containers to collect excess paper, bottles and cans are ubiquitous. Yet, only a few a few decades ago, recycling seemed foreign, was not convenient, and took some effort and resolve on an individual’s part.

Keith N. Humphreys, Ph.D. (Sherry Boschert/Elsevier Global Medical News)

That same evolution has to happen in the way that we handle leftover medications, Keith N. Humphreys, Ph.D., told physicians at the American Academy of Pain Medicine annual meeting. There’s an epidemic of opioid overdose deaths in the United States, and the most common source of misused opioids is leftover medications obtained from friends and family.

He’s talking about a huge cultural shift – with consumers going from saving and sharing costly medications that can be hard to come by in the current health system to recognizing their potential for harm and routinely returning leftover drugs on “take-back days” organized by law enforcement or even depositing them in specialized “recycling” bins.

The number of opioid prescriptions dispensed by U.S. retail pharmacies increased from 76 million in 1991 to 210 million in 2010, according to a report by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. And since 1990, the rate of drug overdoses has tripled, increasing approximately from 4 per 100,000 people to 12 per 100,000 people, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report.

As someone who worked in hospices for a decade, Dr. Humphries knows the valuable role that opioids can play in relieving pain. So, how do we make opioids available but reduce the risk of addiction, abuse and accidental overdose?

There is no policy framework that will eliminate the tension between these two goals, but some policies will help avoid it, said Dr. Humphreys, acting director of the Center for Health Care Evaluation, Veterans Health Administration, Menlo Park, Calif., and a professor of psychiatry at Stanford University. He recently served as senior policy adviser at the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, and  reports having no financial conflicts of interest on this issue.

Here, he said, are five emerging public policies, codes of practice, and cultural norms that “most people can agree on” while working toward harder-to-implement options like expanding addiction treatment programs:

1) Build prescription monitoring programs (PMPs). The idea is that physicians could check to see if a patient has received another opioid prescription recently before handing over a new prescription, to prevent drug-seeking patients from “doctor-shopping” to get more opioids. Thirty-six states have PMPs, though most are early versions that are slow, clunky and virtually worthless. Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have enacted legislation to create PMPs, and two states have no PMP plans.

PMPs “may be resisted and resented by many professionals, but they’re inevitable” and deserve support to quickly improve, Dr. Humphreys said. Plus, there’s a bonus for prescribers: In some states, checking with the PMP before prescribing an opioid gives physicians presumptive immunity from legal liability.

2) Lock doctor shoppers into one prescriber. Every week, a West Virginian dies of a drug overdose while holding prescriptions from five or more health care providers. Public and private insurers could tell patients who have opioid prescriptions from multiple providers that they must get all prescriptions from a single provider if they want their insurance to cover costs.

Recycling bins at the Palm Springs (Calif.) Convention Center, where the AAPM met. (Sherry Boschert/Elsevier Global Medical News)

3) Make prescription “recycling” a cultural norm. Legally, opioid narcotics can be returned to any Drug Enforcement Agency law enforcer, though some states also allow pharmacies to take back leftover drugs. When sheriffs in one small Arkansas town (population 20,000) organized a drug take-back day, residents brought in 25,000 pills, Dr. Humphreys said. A physician at the meeting from Santa Maria, Calif., said a drug take-back day organized by sheriffs there was so successful that they installed a permanent drop-off box outside the sheriff’s office. Dr. Humphreys urged physicians to promote drug take-back days in their communities.

4) Make abuse-resistant medication approvals easier. Currently, developing an abuse-resistant version of an addictive medication requires a new drug application, engendering a lengthy approval process and potentially hundreds of millions of dollars in costs. Government regulators should find a way to ease this massive disincentive for pharmaceutical companies to develop safer pain medicines, he said.

5) Change opioid-related medical practice. A potpourri of short- and long-term strategies could improve practice, he suggested. Patients should be told that sharing opioids is dangerous and illegal. Both patients and physicians need to learn that opioids are not the only response to pain. Emergency physicians should break their habit of automatically writing prescriptions for 30 days’ worth of a drug, and write for shorter time lengths when appropriate. Health care workers need to get better at recognizing addiction, and more attention should go toward ways of preventing “iatrogenic” addiction caused by the health care system itself.

Physicians need to lead the way in these efforts. “Who else?” he asked.

–Sherry Boschert (@sherryboschert on Twitter)

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HPV Changes the Face of Head/Neck Cancer

Just a few years ago, tobacco and alcohol use were presumed to be the main causes of head and neck cancers. Evidence of oropharyngeal cancer associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) first appeared about 10 years ago, but it wasn’t until 2010, with the publication of 2 papers showing far greater survival among HPV-positive patients with head and neck cancer, that oncologists suddenly realized that they were likely dealing with two distinct diseases.

“It’s become clear that the disease we thought was one disease related to tobacco and alcohol is now being parsed into two major categories,” Dr. Maura L. Gillison said last week in Phoenix at the 2012 Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Cancer Symposium. At the meeting, she presented her group’s data showing that the overall prevalence of oral HPV infection in people aged 14-69 years is 6.9%, and that the prevalence is much higher among men than women. The Merck-supported trial paper was published online in JAMA on January 26, coinciding with her presentation.

Tissue section from a head and neck cancer patient / Courtesy of Tom Carey, Ph.D.

In a separate talk, Dr. Gillison summarized previous work from her group showing that the incidence of HPV-related cancer is rising while HPV-negative cancer is declining, consistent with the decline in tobacco use and changes in sexual behavior that increase HPV transmission. Overall survival of head and neck cancer has improved over the last decade, a trend that is likely due both to the improved prognosis among HPV-positive patients and to the decline in tobacco use rather than to advances in treatment, she said.

This recently heightened role of HPV in head and neck cancer  – and the awareness of it - has impacted the field of oncology in several ways. For one, it has dramatically changed the way research is done, conference chair Dr. Ezra Cohen told me. “It has made a tremendous difference in the way clinical trials are conducted, because it makes absolutely no sense to lump these patients together. Now all clinical trials will either stratify for HPV status or design completely separate studies, because they truly are two biologically different diseases.”

Clinically, patients with head and neck cancers are now routinely tested for HPV. This wasn’t the case prior to 2010. And those who test positive are counseled differently, since their prognosis is better. Indeed, Dr. Cohen said, HPV-positive head/neck cancer patients appear to respond better to just about every type of treatment, including surgery.

What’s more, Dr. Gillison told me, HPV has essentially upended some of the tools oncologists use to predict outcomes in head and neck cancer patients. One example is the current tumor staging system, which doesn’t take into account HPV status. A Stage 3 or 4 cancer which carries a poor prognosis among HPV-negative patients might carry the prognosis now associated with Stage 1 cancer among those who are HPV-positive. And another factor that has been shown to predict poor outcome in HPV-negative patients, the presence of extracapsular extension, appears to have little impact in those who are HPV-positive.

“So all these things that we take as firmly established and drivers of treatment decisions in this new setting are all in question,” she said.

Tissue section from the same head/neck cancer, with brown stain of an HPV marker protein called p16 / Courtesy of Tom Carey, Ph.D.

Thus far there have been no major changes in treatment, but Dr. Cohen believes that is likely to change as more data become available. He is currently leading a clinical trial  in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals looking at treatment with reduced radiation doses – and thereby reduced toxicity - for patients who have a good response to induction chemotherapy. Such patients are usually HPV positive.

Another study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, randomizes HPV positive patients to radiation combined with either chemotherapy or a monoclonal antibody, with the hypothesis that the latter will be better tolerated.

Dr. Cohen cautioned that treatment changes won’t come immediately. “Many of us in the field believe that there will be different therapies developed for [HPV-positive] patients, but it takes time to do that. It’s hard to make those changes, especially when we are curing the majority of these patients.”

-Miriam E. Tucker (@MiriamETucker on Twitter)

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Should Physicians Prescribe Positivity?

Scott Jordan Harris  is a U.K.-based blogger, editor, book author, movie critic, and sports writer. Remarkable, considering that he spends most of his time in bed. His primary diagnosis is myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), also known as chronic fatigue syndrome.

In a piece he wrote last week for the BBC’s website, Mr. Harris said that keeping a diary in which he focuses on the positive aspects of his life — at the suggestion of a doctor – keeps him “sane.”

©froglegs/Fotolia.com

“My depression told me my existence was filthy and barren…. After a few months of storing up the previously unrecorded richness of my life, my diary simply disproved that. I knew from re-reading the pages I’d written that I was doing interesting things — and I began to ensure I kept doing them simply to have something to write about. The diary was better than therapy; it pushed me forward through mental pain that had been holding me back.”

He added, “Doctors unaware of the realities of the lives of the chronically ill often suggest we waste what little energy we have noting down exactly how unwell we feel each day, how much we sleep and how little we do, so that they may study the results. These doctors are to be smiled at, and nodded to, and instantly ignored.”

So should physicians advise patients with chronic conditions to keep positive diaries?  I asked two experts.  Dr. Daniel Clauw, a rheumatologist who directs the University of Michigan’s Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center, referred me to his associate, Afton Hassett, Psy.D.

“That was a compelling story in the BBC and it actually does reflect my clinical and research experience as a pain psychologist,” Dr. Hassett told me.

Negative and positive affect (emotions) have been well-studied  in health in general and chronic and acute pain states in particular. There are numerous studies suggesting that positive affect plays an important role in pain outcomes. While few formal studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the exact intervention Mr. Harris described, there are studies   supporting the efficacy of similar positive psychology interventions for depression, Dr. Hassett said.

“Enhancing positive affect is likely a good thing for one’s mental and physical health. Sometimes just keeping a gratitude journal like the BBC article writer noted is all it takes. I always tell people to write down three different things each day for which you are grateful. After the first week or so you really start looking for the small wonders in your life: a great cup of coffee, a kind gesture from a complete stranger, the first tiny yellow flowers of spring.”

Courtesy Wikimedia Commons/4028mdk09/Creative Commons License

But Dr. David Spiegel, a psychiatrist who heads the Stanford University Center on Stress and Health, urges caution regarding positive psychology.   “I think the drumbeat for upbeat can be a little overwhelming… I agree with [Mr. Harris] that just focusing on how bad you feel you can dig yourself into a pit, but at the same time you can’t deny your feelings. The worst thing you can do to a depressed person is to tell them to cheer up.”

However, Dr. Spiegel, who works with breast cancer patients, noted that “you can help them by saying let’s give dimension to what’s bothering you, but also put that in perspective, and see other things that are good, that are positive. So it’s not one or the other…Happiness is not the absence of sadness.”

Dr. Spiegel said that advising patients with chronic conditions to keep a diary in general is an “interesting idea,” and that there is a literature base  for the medical benefits of journaling.

He advised that physicians suggest to their patients, “See if it helps you to have a daily journal of your journey through this illness, what your problems were and what your little victories were, and what you did that helped you deal with it and get beyond it.”

—Miriam E. Tucker (@MiriamETucker on Twitter)

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Proportion of Patients Age 90+ Growing Rapidly

If you sense that an increasing proportion of your patients are over the age of 90, your instincts are spot on. According a new report from the United States Census Bureau, you can expect the number of patients in your practice aged 90 years and older to increase significantly over the next 4 decades. In fact, this population stood at 1.9 million strong in 2010, but it may balloon to 9 million by the year 2050.

Image via Flickr user tylerhoff by Creative Commons License.

“Because of increasing numbers of older people and increases in life expectancy at older ages, the oldest segments of the older population are growing the fastest,” Richard Suzman, Ph.D., director of National Institute on Aging’s Division of Behavioral and Social Research, said in a prepared statement. “A key issue for this population will be whether disability rates can be reduced.”

The report, commissioned by the NIA and entitled “90+ in the United States: 2006-2008,” comes primarily from American Community Survey data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau in 2006, 2007, and 2008.

Highlights from the 27-page report include the following: Women aged 90 years and older outnumber their male peers by nearly 3:1; 88% of the 90 and older population are white; 85% reported having one or more limitations in physical function; 28% continued their education beyond high school; 85% of women are widowed, compared with 49% of men; 40% of women live alone, compared with 30% of men; and 26% of women live in nursing homes or other health care institutions, compared with 15% of men.

The report describes gains in life expectancy among Americans over the past century as “impressive.” For example, life expectancy at age 65 years increased from 12.2 years in 1929-1931 to 18.5 years in 2006. Today, 90-year-olds are expected to live on average another 4.6 years (vs. 3.2 years in 1929-31), and those who reach age 100 are projected to live another 2.3 years.

— Doug Brunk (on Twitter@dougbrunk)

Image courtesy tylerhoff’s photostream on Flickr

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Bundled Dialysis Payments May Leave Some Shortchanged

It’s difficult not to equate the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ bundled payment system for outpatient hemodialysis with, say, handing a 12-year-old boy a $10 bill to buy lunch and telling him to keep the change.

That the 12 year old might decide to forego the healthful $9.95 veggie wrap with a side of fruit in favor of the $1 Snickers bar so he can pocket the $9 profit is well within the realm of possibility. In the same vein, should we really be surprised to learn that hemodialysis facilities might not be optimizing patient care when they are being paid a flat fee vs. separate payments for each service —  if not to make a buck, to avoid losing one? A study reported during Kidney Week 2011, the annual meeting of the American Society of Nephrology, hints at just such a scenario.

Image courtesy of Image Courtesy Wikimedia Commons/Elembis/Creative Commons

Using data from the nationally representative Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) practice monitor, investigators with the Ann Arbor Research Collaborative for Health in Michigan determined that uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism has been on the rise among black hemodialysis patients since the implementation in January 2011 of the CMS’s prospective payment system for dialysis services. The system bundles payments for dialysis treatments, supplies, drugs, and lab tests. It rewards facilities for meeting or exceeding quality measures in the Medicare fee-for-service system.

Although the revised payment system is intended to “improve patient outcomes and promote efficient delivery of health care services,” in the words of CMS administrator Donald Berwick, the Ann Arbor investigators hypothesized that the increased financial constraints may lead to less use of intravenous vitamin D analogs, and thus poorer control of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Black patients would be left especially vulnerable because they require higher vitamin D doses on average than other patients, according to lead investigator Dr. Francesca Tentori.

To test the hypothesis, the investigators examined trends in parathyroid hormone (PTH) values and SHPT in dialysis patients from July 2010-February 2011 and observed a notable increase in PTH levels overall and in severe, uncontrolled SHPT (defined as a PTH level greater than 600 pg/ml) among black patients.

Specifically, the median PTH value rose among blacks from 296 to 379 pg/ml and from 244 to 283 among non-blacks, and the prevalence of SHPT rose significantly from 16-25% among blacks and slightly, from 9-11% among nonblacks,  Dr. Tentori reported.

Based on preliminary analysis, “these changes don’t appear to be related to decreased overall use of [SHPT] treatments, as the percentage of prescribed intravenous vitamin D rose slightly in both groups, or to changes in serum calcium or phosphorous,” Dr. Tentori said. The findings warrant further evaluation to tease out the cause of the trend, particularly because untreated SHPT has been linked to increased mortality risk in dialysis patients, she stressed.

Dr. Tentori disclosed financial relationships with Amgen, Genzyme, KHK, Abbott, and Baxter.

—Diana Mahoney

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LGBT Older Adults Spotlighted in New Report

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults face certain obstacles in accessing good quality health care, according to an article in the latest Public Policy and Aging Report, a quarterly publication of the National Academy on an Aging Society.

The article, written by Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen, Ph.D., professor and director of the Institute for Multigenerational Health at the University of Washington in Seattle, states that 21% of LGBT older adults “have not revealed their sexual orientation to their primary physician, with bisexual women and men less likely to disclose than lesbians and gay men. This prevents discussions about sexual health, hormone therapy, risk of breast cancer, hepatitis and HIV risk, or other potential risk factors.”

Dr. Fredriksen-Goldsen goes on to note that 13% of LGBT older adults “have been denied or provided inferior healthcare, and almost one-quarter (22 percent) of transgender older adults need to see a doctor but can’t because of cost. In addition, 15 percent fear accessing healthcare outside the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community and eight percent fear accessing healthcare inside the community.”

The article is one of 10 that makes this issue of the Public Policy and Aging Report (PPAR) the first ever dedicated to addressing the needs of LGBT older adults. “Given the voluminous gerontological literature that has built up over the past half-century, it is hard to imagine that any set of aging populations has been largely ignored or under-investigated,” PPAR Editor Robert Hudson, Ph.D., chair of the Department of Social Policy at the Boston University School of Social Work, said in a prepared statement. “Yet, LGBT older adults have remained nearly invisible to the community of advocates, researchers, practitioners, administrators, and politicians who associate themselves with the modern aging enterprise. This issue of PPAR takes a step toward filling that void.”

Topics of other articles in the report are varied and include how health care reform will impact LGBT elders, policy issues and social concerns facing older adults with HIV, and research and policy directions related to LGBT aging. A pdf of the report can be accessed for free here.

The National Academy on an Aging Society is a policy institute of The Gerontological Society of America. The report was cosponsored by the New York-based Services and Advocacy for GLBT Elders (SAGE).

— Doug Brunk (on Twitter@dougbrunk)

Image courtesy Flickr/Donnay/Creative Commons License

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TAVI Trek Begins

It took just two days after the Nov. 2 FDA approval of the Edwards SAPIEN transcatheter aortic valve for New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center to claim bragging rights as the first center in the United States to implant the device as an FDA-approved standard of care.

The center will be one of four sites to train U.S. doctors in the procedure, and is promising to lead a live demonstration tomorrow (Nov. 9) at the annual Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics symposium in San Francisco for those eager to get a front row view of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Courtesy Edwards Lifesciences

The FDA approval also put the U.S. in the rare position of following the footsteps of some 40 countries that have already approved the SAPIEN valve including Latvia, Iran, and Russia. This fact elicited a good laugh at the recent Heart Valve Summit 2011 in Chicago, but also prompted much dialogue about some of the thorny ethical and economical consequences that still lay ahead.

“Is anyone at the government talking about rationing of care?” asked Dr. Stephen Strelec, an anesthesiologist at University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, at the summit. It’s not just the 92-year-old who says “I want to live,” but the younger patient facing a valve procedure who decides they don’t want to be on anticoagulants and undergo surgery because they can afford this expensive new transcatheter valve in 2 years. “There’s an economic consequence to that decision as well,” he said.

Dr. Robert Bonow, director of the center for cardiovascular innovation at Northwestern, said the issue is being looked at by federal agencies and insurers, but added that it is “one of the biggest hot-button items about this whole technology because it’s not going to be cheap.”

Dr. David Adams, chair of cardiothoracic surgery at Mount Sinai Medical Center, said they’ve already had their share of 90-year-olds wheeled in from the nursing home by family members who read about TAVI in the newspaper and want mom to stay alive.

The suggestion was made that surgeons and interventional cardiologists will have to hone their skills in making the very specific diagnosis of medical futility, and that a board-certified palliative care physician will be one of the most valuable members of the multidisciplinary teams treating these patients.

“Every PARTNER site looking back over their patients can name patients that they wish they didn’t enroll in the trial and done the valve on,” said Dr. Howard Herrmann, director of interventional cardiology and cardiac catheterization at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. “The question is how to recognize them up front.”

Edwards Lifesciences and the FDA are setting up an intensive training program with simulations, an expert review of cases and a proctoring system. Still, the challenge for Edwards and other companies that will follow will be enormous in terms of launching this technology outside the clinical trial setting, said Dr. Adams, co-principal investigator of Medtronic’s CoreValve trial.

“You can not overestimate the amount of company support you’re going to need to do these things safely,” he said. “This is not a new widget you can pick up in one or two tries like a new ring or new stent…It’s a whole new process.”

The European experience, albeit the initial experience, suggests there’s a distinct learning curve to TAVI. A meta-analysis of 12 TAVI trials presented at this summer’s European Society of Cardiology Congress, reported a flattening of mortality curves 8 years after the first human case in 2002, with procedural mortality decreasing from 16.7% in 2004 to 0.0-0.6% in 2010 and 30-day mortality plummeting from 67% to 11% over the same time period. The authors, led by Dr. Pablo Salinas, University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, credit technical improvements in the devices, better patient selection and on-site case proctoring as helping to shorten the learning curve.

—by Patrice Wendling

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Moving Beyond the Hospital

Recently, officials at Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian, a regional health care system in Orange County, Calif., decided to rebrand their 60-year-old institution. The not-for-profit health care system is now known simply as Hoag. They weren’t just going for brevity. They specifically wanted to drop the word “hospital.”

Dr. Richard Afable, Hoag’s president and CEO, recently spoke to a small meeting of hospitalists in Las Vegas and explained that the name change reflects a shift toward providing more services outside of the hospital. Hoag’s hospitals do a great job treating the acutely ill, he said, but the leadership wanted to reach out to people in the community before they got sick enough to make it to the hospital.

Dr. Richard Afable. Photo by Mary Ellen Schneider/ Elsevier Global Medical News.

So officials at Hoag have been working to offer more services related to conditions that either slightly touch the hospital or don’t touch it at all, Dr. Afable said. For example, the system has beefed up its offerings around diabetes care and now provides counseling on how to manage the disease and prevent complications. In the old days, they would have waited for someone to have a heart attack or lose a limb before taking care of them, Dr. Afable said. They also are developing community-based programs for breast cancer, a condition that today is treated primarily outside of the hospital.

And Dr. Afable advised hospitalists to consider following Hoag’s lead and look how they can be involved in care outside of the hospital. He noted the example of CareMore, a medical group and health plan based in California, which is being acquired by the health insurer Wellpoint, Inc. Under CareMore’s model, hospitalists not only care for patients while they are in the hospital, but also after they leave. Once a patient is stable, they are sent back to receive the rest of their care from their primary care physician. Since CareMore uses a capitation payment model, there aren’t concerns about which physician gets the payment for the post-discharge care. The model is food for thought for hospitalists as care becomes increasingly less hospital centric, Dr. Afable said.

— Mary Ellen Schneider

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