Tag Archives: drug abuse

Adolescent Misuse of Prescription Pain Medicine Starts Early

In stark contrast to most research that suggests senior year in high school or later is the peak time for misuse of prescription pain relievers, it is younger 16-year-olds who are the mostly likely to report their first use of these agents outside their intended prescription within the previous year, a new study finds.

Courtesy Wikimedia Creative Commons/Kandy Talbot

The time for physicians to identify risk and intervene is the young to middle teenage years, Elizabeth A. Meier, Ph.D., and her associates at Michigan State University in East Lansing reported.

“With peak risk at age 16 years and a notable acceleration in risk between ages 13 and 14 years, any strict focus on college students or 12th graders might be an example of too little too late in the clinical practice sector and in public health work,” they wrote in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, published online May 7, 2012.

“We suspect that many physicians, other prescribing clinicians, and public health professionals will share our surprise that for youth in the United States, the peak risk of starting extramedical use of prescription pain relievers occurs before the final year of high school [and] not during the post-secondary school years,” the authors wrote.

Another reason to screen your young adolescent patients is the risk of hazardous consequences associated with prescription pain misuse, which is greatest during early adolescence, Dr. Meier and her colleagues noted.

They assessed self-reported extramedical prescription pain reliever use among 119,877 U.S. teens and young adults (ages 12-21 years) using 2004-2008 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).

They calculated the highest risk estimate, 2.8%, at 16 years of age. This is an increase from 0.5% at 12 years; 0.7% at 13 years; 1.6% at 14 years; and 2.2% at 15 years. After the peak in mid-adolescence, risk dropped steadily by 0.3% or 0.4% each year, down to 1.1% among 21-year-olds.

Reliance on self-reported misuse of prescription pain killers is a limitation of the study. A strong point of the research, however, was including adolescents and young adults regardless of whether they were still in school.

Earlier and stronger school-based prevention and outreach programs are warranted, according to the researchers. There also is a distinct role and reason for pediatricians, dentists, and other clinicians to work toward misuse prevention in their practices, they added: roughly 15% of the youths surveyed were not in school during the peak time of risk.

–Damian McNamara

@MedReporter on twitter

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Filed under Anesthesia and Analgesia, Drug And Device Safety, Epidemiology, Family Medicine, IMNG, Internal Medicine News, Pediatrics, Uncategorized

Chugging Energy Drinks Like a Rock Star?

Chugging nonalcoholic energy drinks like a rock star for that pick-me-up feeling could increase your risk of a visit to the emergency department. In fact, the number of hospital ED visits related to the consumption of energy drinks increased by more than 11-fold between 2005 and 2009, according to findings from a new government report released on Nov. 22.

Image via Flickr user rynosoft by Creative Commons License

In addition, 52% of the energy drink–related visits made by young adults aged 18-25 years involved combinations of alcohol or other drugs, compared with 44% of visits made by those aged 26-39 years, 28% of visits made by those aged 12-17 years, and 30% of visits made by those aged 40 years and older.

“Excessive caffeine intake from energy drinks can cause arrhythmias, hypertension, and dehydration, in addition to sleeplessness and nervousness,” according to the report, from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). “Additional risks and other medical complications can arise depending on the individual’s overall health status (for example, cardiac conditions, eating disorders, diabetes, anxiety disorders) and other drugs or medications prescribed (for example, those for attention deficit disorder). Use over time can cause dependence and withdrawal symptoms.”

The number of ED visits involving energy drinks reached 1,128 in, but jumped to 16,053 in 2008 and 13,114 in 2009, a  more than 11-fold increase between 2005 and 2009. More than two-thirds of visits (67%) were classified as adverse reactions.

While a 5-ounce cup of coffee contains about 100 mg of caffeine, the amount of caffeine in canned or bottled energy drinks ranges from 80 mg to more than 500 mg. “Although there are no recommended or ‘safe’ levels that have been experimentally established for caffeine, most researchers and clinicians consider 100-200 mg of caffeine/day to be moderate intake for an adult,” the report states. “Pediatricians recommend that children and adolescents abstain from all stimulant-containing energy drinks.”

Nearly two-thirds of all ED visits (64%) were made by males. In addition, 20% of energy drink–related emergency department visits by males included the use of alcohol, compared with 10% of females. However, a higher proportion of visits by females involved the combined use of energy drinks and pharmaceuticals (35% vs. 23% among males, respectively).

— Doug Brunk (on Twitter@dougbrunk)

Image courtesy rynosoft’s photostream

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Filed under Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine, Hospital and Critical Care Medicine, IMNG, Practice Trends, Primary care, Uncategorized

Drug Makers Go High-Tech to Prevent Opioid Abuse

Daytona 500 practice run (U.S. Air Force photo by Larry McTighe via Wikimedia Commons)

In the heart of Appalachia, there have long been doughty renegades who prefer not to pay taxes on their whiskey (also known as moonshine or a potential substance of abuse). These ingenious individuals have continually come up with imaginative ways to distill and distribute their products, while evading law enforcement (also known as revenuers). In fact, one of America’s favorite pastime — NASCAR — was born of the need of moonshiners to outrun the revenuers.

These days though, the game is being played the other way around.  Drugmakers, with encouragement from the government, are coming up with some pretty cool ways to prevent the abuse and misuse of opioids and other prescription drugs, which have become another of American’s favorite pastimes. In 2009, 16 million Americans age 12 and older had taken a prescription pain reliever, tranquilizer, stimulant, or sedative for nonmedical purposes at least once in the year prior to being surveyed, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Dr. Lynn Webster discussed some innovative technologies to prevent opioid misuse at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Pain Medicine. So what’s on the horizon?

Approved in 2010, Exalgo is an extended-release formulation of hydromorphone that is indicated for once-daily administration for the management of moderate-to-severe pain in opioid-tolerant patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period of time. The drug uses a new technology – osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS) — which uses osmosis to attract water in the body to the inside of the capsule to trigger release of hydromorphone. It takes about 6 hours for the drug to release effective levels of hydromorphone and 4-5 days of use to reach a steady state of the drug in the body, said Dr. Webster.

Oxycontin abuse (courtesy of 51fifty via Wikimedia Commons)

Acurox is an oral immediate-release oxycodone tablet with a proposed indication for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Acurox uses another new technology, this one designed to deter misuse and abuse by intentional swallowing of excess quantities of tablets, intravenous injection of dissolved tablets, and nasal snorting of crushed tablets.

Collegium Pharmaceutical is developing an extended-release opioid formulation using DETERx technology to thwart abuse. Crushing or chewing prior to ingestion is a commonly used method of abusing oxycodone. Company studies have demonstrated that the plasma profile for the new DETERx formulation pill, when chewed, was bioequivalent to the taking the pill whole and as intended. This suggests that attempting to breakdown the sustained-release microspheres by chewing would not result in a meaningful increase in plasma level.
“It’s an abuse-resistant formulation, in that [potential abusers]can’t extract more than is intended for drug delivery,” said Dr. Webster.

Perhaps the most interesting and impressive technology is being developed by PharmacoFore. According to the company, the delivery system’s developer, the novel Bio-Activated Molecular Delivery (Bio-MD) technology effectively deters prescription drug abuse at a molecular level. “This technology does not involve the reformulation of existing opioid drugs in physical matrices that are easily circumvented by simple extraction methods. Our opioid Bio-MD systems are “activated” to release clinically effective opioid drugs only when exposed to the correct physiologic conditions (i.e., ingested).”

The system uses a mechanism “that locks in the amount of release of an opioid from a moiety, which is attached to a molecule … it can be any opioid … it’s an inert compound until it’s activated to be released,” said Dr. Webster. Essentially, the opioid molecule is attached to this delivery compound, which is “kind of like a clock. The intrinsic trypsin in our GI tract will activate that clock, which will cause a process to begin … and it will allow that drug to be released.” The “clock” compound determines how much time it will take for the active compound to be released and can be attached to any opioid. “It’s very early on though,” cautioned Dr. Webster. This molecular delivery system is in phase I trials.

Moonshine still in Knox County, Tennessee photographed by TVA in 1936 (courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

Still, if the drug companies are able to get these technologies approved, we could see a drop in prescription drug abuse. It remains to be seen if there will be a corresponding increase in moonshine.

Kerri Wachter

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Filed under Anesthesia and Analgesia, Family Medicine, IMNG, Internal Medicine, Oncology, Primary care